Winter Born \/\/FREE\\\\
Ariel Winter Workman (born January 28, 1998) is an American actress. She starred as Alex Dunphy in the ABC comedy series Modern Family, for which she and her co-stars won four consecutive Screen Actors Guild Awards for Outstanding Ensemble in a Comedy Series. She also voiced the titular character in the Disney Junior show Sofia the First and Penny Peterson in the 2014 animated film Mr. Peabody and Sherman.
Winter was born on January 28, 1998, the daughter of Chrisoula (née Batistas) and Glenn Workman. Through her mother, she is of Greek descent, and through her father, of German descent. She is the younger sister of actors Shanelle Workman and Jimmy Workman.
"We got home, the roads were maintained until about six blocks from our house," Wade said. "We had obviously a 2-day-old with us and we couldn't get in. So we ended up beachng the [truck] and walked in with my wife holding the newborn in her jacket through about four-and-a-half-foot snow drifts."
The researchers behind the study, published in the Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology, say the difference seems to be that babies born in the winter have the advantage of summer weather at the stage when they are getting ready to crawl.
The babies in the study started crawling at an average age of 31 weeks. But the summer and winter babies started crawling at significantly different times on average. The babies born in winter or spring started to crawl in the summer, at an average of 30 weeks; while the babies born in the summer or fall, started to crawl in the winter, at an average age of 35 weeks.
The winter babies had a higher average AIMS score due to significantly outperforming the summer babies in moving on their stomachs, the most meaningful scale in connection with crawling. The winter and summer babies did not differ significantly on the other scales.
Previous research has found similar results in places where the weather changes notably between summer and winter, such as in Denver, Colorado and in Osaka, Japan. On the other hand, a study done in Alberta, Canada, where winters are long and cold but heating keep the home environment steady year round, found no seasonal effect on the start of crawling.
Possible seasonal differences in newborn bone mineral content (BMC) have not been studied. Adult studies show seasonal variations with lower BMC in winter versus summer. Assuming that BMC variations may relate in part to vitamin D status, we hypothesized that newborn BMC would be lower in winter than summer. BMC of one third distal radius was measured in 55 healthy term newborns using a single beam photon absorptiometer [coefficient of variation (CV) for phantom standard 2.1%]. Infants were enrolled during summer (July-September, 1988) and winter (January-March, 1989) for a longitudinal nutrition study. Contrary to our hypothesis, there was a 12% lower BMC in summer versus winter (mean +/- SD 75.94 +/- 17.42 vs. 86.55 +/- 17.54 mg/cm, respectively; p = 0.035). The difference remained significant after controlling for possible race and gender effects (p = 0.02). We conclude that BMC is lower in summer- compared with winter-born infants. Since any seasonal effects on fetal bone are presumably related to effects through the mother, we speculate that if maternal vitamin D status influences fetal bone mineralization, the effect (possible sunshine deprivation in winter) may operate especially in early pregnancy, thus resulting in lower BMC, evident at birth in summer.
Data from two sources--the Edinburgh Psychiatric Case Register and the psychiatric inpatient records of the Scottish Health Service--were used to compare large populations of first-admission schizophrenics born in winter (January to March) and in summer (June to October). Parallel comparisons were carried out for affective psychoses. Comparison of the months of birth of the Scottish patients with those of the general population indicated that there was a 9% excess of schizophrenic births and a 3% excess of affective births in the first 3 months of the year. In the Edinburgh material, winter-born schizophrenics were more likely than the summer-born to receive a diagnosis of paranoid or schizoaffective schizophrenia and less likely to receive diagnoses other than schizophrenia on readmission, but neither of these differences emerged in the much larger Scottish material. There were no differences between winter- and summer-born schizophrenics in age of onset, sex ratio, or prognosis in either data set, nor were any significant differences found between winter- and summer-born affectives. We have therefore failed to demonstrate any convincing differences between winter- and summer-born schizophrenics.
When compared to their summer-born counterparts, winter babies tend to be bigger. Scientists at Harvard and at the University of Queensland in Australia found that children born in the winter months tend to be longer than babies born in the summer, and that at age seven, the winter-born kids were taller, heavier and had larger head circumferences than their peers.
A study at Queensland University assessed behaviors ranging from consideration of others to fidgeting among four- and five-year-olds, and found that the winter-born children were better behaved than their summer counterparts.
Time of conception can have an affect on a baby's overall health. According to an Oxford University study, babies born in November have the lowest incidence of multiple sclerosis, while babies conceived in the winter months tend to have the highest incidence. This could be because moms get less vitamin D in the winter, which can affect the baby in utero.
Economists from the University of Notre Dame did a review of birth certificates from 1989 to 2001 and found the percentage of children born to unwed mothers, teenage mothers, and mothers who hadn't completed high school peaked in January of every year.
According to some studies, when compared to each other, summer babies have more bone area than winter babies. This is probably attributed to decreased amounts of vitamin D absorption by pregnant mamas, as vitamin D is more difficult to come by in the winter months.
Based on research conducted at Princeton, babies conceived in May and delivered in winter are more likely to be born early than in other months. In fact, babies due in the winter are as much as 10 percent likely to be born early. One risk factor is that flu season is at its peak, and contracting the flu whilst pregnant can cause serious complications to your baby. All the better reason to receive a flu shot if you're expecting in the winter!
A 2014 study shows that babies born in the winter months (December-May) start crawling earlier compared to babies born in the summer (June-November). This may be attributed to the seasonal differences (like temperature) that occur around 30 weeks, when babies begin to crawl.
The research was conducted by Dr. Osnat Atun-Einy of the University's Department of Physical Therapy and Dr. Dina Cohen, Moran Samuel and Prof. Anat Scher of the Department of Counseling and Human Development. 47 healthy babies with typical development patterns where divided them into two groups. The first group comprised "summer-fall" babies, 16 babies born from June to November, and the second, "winter-spring" babies, 31 babies born from December to May. The study consisted of motor observations in the babies' homes when there were seven months old, and a follow-up session when they began to crawl. Parents were asked to record the stages in their babies' development before and between the observations.
The study used the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS), an observational assessment with high reliability, to track the babies' development. The scale relates to four positions: Prone (on the stomach), supine (on the back), sitting, and standing. The average age at which the babies started crawling was 31 weeks. But while the babies born in the winter (who started to crawl in the summer) started to crawl at an average 30 weeks, those born in the summer (who started to crawl in the winter) began crawling at an average of 35 weeks, with no differences noted between the boys or the girls or in the initial style of crawling (belly crawling or using hands and knees).
The overall AIMS score was higher for those babies born in the winter, and the score for movement in the prone position, the scale most meaningful in connection with crawling was, significantly higher for the babies in the winter group. By contrast, there was no significant difference in the scores for the supine position, sitting, or standing between the two groups. According to the researchers, the findings strengthen the assumption that there is a window of opportunity for starting to crawl and stress the effect of the season on the start of crawling.
"The geographic location and the local climate where the study is conducted is important to understand the findings, they add. A seasonal effect is found in places where the differences in the home environment between summer and winter are significant. Studies done in Denver, Colorado and in Osaka, Japan found a seasonal effect that corresponds with the findings of the Haifa study, but a study conducted in Alberta, Canada, where winters are long and cold on the one hand, but the home environment (because of winter heating) is very similar all year round, the seasonal effect was not observed.
"Although the winter in Israel is comparatively mild compared to other places in the world, it turns out that it nonetheless influences the motor development of babies because of the differences between summer and winter in Israel," the researchers say. "The season influences the babies' experiences in a number of ways, including layers of clothing that are worn; the opportunities babies are given to spend on the floor on their stomachs, and the hours of activity and daylight. Awareness of the seasonal effect is important so that parents will give their babies proper movement and development opportunities in the winter as well," the researchers say. 041b061a72