top of page

Vetacad Group

Offentlig·3 medlemmar


An instrument is a tool, something used to construct. It's often a tool for making music. A musical saw happens to be a carpenter's tool that can be played with a violin bow (though you probably wouldn't want to play a wrench or a pair of pliers). The musical meanings of instrumental, as in "It starts with an instrumental piece" or "a jazz instrumental", are common. But the meanings "helpful", "useful", and "essential", as in "He was instrumental in getting my book published", are just as common.


An instrumental or instrumental song is music normally without any vocals, although it might include some inarticulate vocals, such as shouted backup vocals in a big band setting. Through semantic widening, a broader sense of the word song may refer to instrumentals.[1][2][3] The music is primarily or exclusively produced using musical instruments. An instrumental can exist in music notation, after it is written by a composer; in the mind of the composer (especially in cases where the composer themselves will perform the piece, as in the case of a blues solo guitarist or a folk music fiddle player); as a piece that is performed live by a single instrumentalist or a musical ensemble, which could range in components from a duo or trio to a large big band, concert band or orchestra.

In a song that is otherwise sung, a section that is not sung but which is played by instruments can be called an instrumental interlude, or, if it occurs at the beginning of the song, before the singer starts to sing, an instrumental introduction. If the instrumental section highlights the skill, musicality, and often the virtuosity of a particular performer (or group of performers), the section may be called a "solo" (e.g., the guitar solo that is a key section of heavy metal music and hard rock songs). If the instruments are percussion instruments, the interlude can be called a percussion interlude or "percussion break". These interludes are a form of break in the song.

In commercial popular music, instrumental tracks are sometimes renderings, remixes of a corresponding release that features vocals, but they may also be compositions originally conceived without vocals. One example of a genre in which both vocal/instrumental and solely instrumental songs are produced is blues. A blues band often uses mostly songs that have lyrics that are sung, but during the band's show, they may also perform instrumental songs which only include electric guitar, harmonica, upright bass/electric bass and drum kit.

A goal of many health studies is to determine the causal effect of a treatment or intervention on health outcomes. Often, it is not ethically or practically possible to conduct a perfectly randomized experiment, and instead, an observational study must be used. A major challenge to the validity of observational studies is the possibility of unmeasured confounding (i.e., unmeasured ways in which the treatment and control groups differ before treatment administration, which also affect the outcome). Instrumental variables analysis is a method for controlling for unmeasured confounding. This type of analysis requires the measurement of a valid instrumental variable, which is a variable that (i) is independent of the unmeasured confounding; (ii) affects the treatment; and (iii) affects the outcome only indirectly through its effect on the treatment. This tutorial discusses the types of causal effects that can be estimated by instrumental variables analysis; the assumptions needed for instrumental variables analysis to provide valid estimates of causal effects and sensitivity analysis for those assumptions; methods of estimation of causal effects using instrumental variables; and sources of instrumental variables in health studies.

Instrumental variable analysis is an approach for obtaining causal inferences on the effect of an exposure (risk factor) on an outcome from observational data. It has gained in popularity over the past decade with the use of genetic variants as instrumental variables, known as Mendelian randomization. An instrumental variable is associated with the exposure, but not associated with any confounder of the exposure-outcome association, nor is there any causal pathway from the instrumental variable to the outcome other than via the exposure. Under the assumption that a single instrumental variable or a set of instrumental variables for the exposure is available, the causal effect of the exposure on the outcome can be estimated. There are several methods available for instrumental variable estimation; we consider the ratio method, two-stage methods, likelihood-based methods, and semi-parametric methods. Techniques for obtaining statistical inferences and confidence intervals are presented. The statistical properties of estimates from these methods are compared, and practical advice is given about choosing a suitable analysis method. In particular, bias and coverage properties of estimators are considered, especially with weak instruments. Settings particularly relevant to Mendelian randomization are prioritized in the paper, notably the scenario of a continuous exposure and a continuous or binary outcome.

The division offers Bachelor of Music, Master of Music, and Doctor of Musical Arts performance degrees with specialization in: violin, viola, violoncello, double bass, harp, guitar, flute, oboe, clarinet, bassoon, saxophone, trumpet, French horn, trombone, euphonium, tuba, percussion, and multiple woodwinds. Current and former students have won prizes in major instrumental competitions of every genre, and are appointed to professional positions in orchestras, wind symphonies, and universities/conservatories spanning the world.

Step 1: Carefully read, then fill out THIS Google form.Step 2: Find where to donate your instrument on the form linked above, and contact the shop to coordinate drop off at your convenience.Step 3: SMILE! You've been instrumental in helping young musicians have access to play in their orchestra or band.

The School's instrumental performance students also participate in the School's large ensembles, with a variety of orchestras, bands, and other instrumental ensembles open to majors and non-majors alike. For more information, visit the Orchestral Activities and Band Activities links below, or visit our Ensembles page:

We propose a new way to construct instruments in a broad class of economic environments. In the economies we study, a few large firms, industries or countries account for an important share of economic activity. As the idiosyncratic shocks from these large players affect aggregate outcomes, they are valid and often powerful instruments. We provide a methodology to extract idiosyncratic shocks from data and create "granular instrumental variables" (GIVs), which are size-weighted sums of idiosyncratic shocks. GIVs allow us to then estimate parameters of interest. As an application, we measure how "sovereign yield shocks" transmit across countries in the Eurozone.

Strong musical training and versatility are needed to make a career as a performer. As an instrumentalist at Hartt, you receive training in performance, pedagogy, and career development. Solo, chamber, and large ensemble opportunities provide experience in standard repertoire and new works. We also offer many opportunities to perform in collaborative environments such as playing in the pit orchestras for an opera, dance concert, or a musical theatre production. Performance master classes and the opportunity to work with renowned guest composers and conductors enrich your educational experience and professional network. Upon graduation, you are fully prepared to market yourself as an instrumentalist, audition for professional ensembles, and negotiate your contract. Our pedagogy training also allows you to begin your private studio at the same time.

Our diverse faculty contribute greatly to your student experience, not just by what they teach in the studio or rehearsal room, but by what they do outside of Hartt. The instrumental faculty members are all working musicians who perform with orchestras, chamber ensembles, Broadway shows, service bands, pickup groups, and as soloists and studio musicians. Their repertoire is as varied as the ensembles in which they perform it.

The Artist Diploma (AD) program is designed to provide emerging professional soloists with advanced level instrumental study to further their career goals in the performing arts. The core of this training program is intensive instrumental study geared for the solo performer in concert, chamber music, and orchestra. This program has fewer academic requirements which allows students to concentrate fully on instrumental performance.

Instrumental convergence or convergent instrumental values is the theorized tendency for most sufficiently intelligent agents to pursue potentially unbounded instrumental goals such as self-preservation and resource acquisition [1]. This concept has also been discussed under the term basic drives.

The idea was first explored by Steve Omohundro. He argued that sufficiently advanced AI systems would all naturally discover similar instrumental subgoals. The view that there are important basic AI drives was subsequently defended by Nick Bostrom as the instrumental convergence thesis, or the convergent instrumental goals thesis. On this view, a few goals are instrumental to almost all possible final goals. Therefore, all advanced AIs will pursue these instrumental goals. Omohundro uses microeconomic theory by von Neumann to support this idea.

Relatedly, see this proposal about how to report instrumental variable analyses. We emphasize that valid instrumental variable estimation requires not only the 3 instrumental conditions (that is, having a valid instrument), but also a fourth condition to be chosen between homogeneity or monotonicity.

Before 1994, all instrumental variable estimates implicitly relied on homogeneity, which is generally an implausible assumption. With the shift to monotonicity after the mid-1990s, many authors thought the problem was solved. However, Sonja Swanson demonstrated empirically that monotonicity is unlikely to hold in many applications: 041b061a72


Welcome to the group! You can connect with other members, ge...
bottom of page